Faculty member Bruce Scofield received his PhD from the University of Massachusetts in 2010. His Doctoral Defense was given on October 5, 2009. His committee includedLynn Margulis (Chair), Rob Deconto, Frank Keimig, Brian Ogilvie and Ted Sargent. He worked on Gaia theory and solar system influences on climate and life; how minute fluctuations in the cosmic environment are amplified and accomplish profound transformations in the atmosphere and biosphere. Click here for a copy of his dissertation. Specifically, his thesis examined temperature variations in the northern hemisphere correlated with Saturn-Sun geocentric alignments. For the past five years at the U. of Mass. he also assisted Lynn Margulis in her course Environmental Evolution and has conducted discussion sections for James Walker’s honors course Cosmos to Humanity (Bio 270H) which surveys current scientific knowledge from the Big Bang to the future of life, all in the context of the theory of evolution.